Green 400 Magazine Presents…..

Sustainable and Healthy Environment


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Murder in the Sea’s~Unacceptable Behavior

Who is killing all the whales, dolphins and porpoises?

First let us learn a little about whales, dolphins and porpoises, they are all in the class of cetaceans. Cetaceans are aquatic mammals characterized by having fusform (streamlined) body shapes, paddles-shaped front limbs and vestigial hind limbs. Their tails have been flattened into flukes to aid propulsion.  

The Whale Family By Green 400 Magazine

Cetaceans spend all their time in the oceans, they are mammals just like us. This means that they are warm blooded, give birth to live young, nurse their young, have traces of hair or fur, and must come to the surface to breathe air through their lungs.

Millions of years ago, the ancestors of whales lived on land. Scientists believe these land ancestors looked like small dogs, but were probably more closely related to hippos and went into the ocean about 60 million years ago. Over time, these ancestors adapted to survive solely in the ocean environment. Their front legs turned into paddle-shaped flippers, they lost their back legs, their tails grew larger and widened to form flukes, and they developed a thick layer of fat, called blubber, to keep warm in the ocean. Also, their skulls elongated and the nostrils shifted to the top of their heads (blowholes) to aid in breathing at the ocean’s surface.  They developed a series of adaptations related to diving, which include the ability to store more oxygen in their blood and muscles and having more blood volume relative to their body size than land mammals. The baleen whales eat very small animals, which are low on the food chain, these whales are all very large and eat great quantities at once. For instance, the blue whale is the largest animal on earth, weighing up to 150 tons. Baby blue whales gain 10 pounds (4.5 kg) an hour!

Watch this amazing video of the amazing blue whale.

Current Status

Many whales are endangered, largely due to past hunting from the Japanese and South Koreans.  Right now people are protesting all over the world about hunting these valuable animals. Years ago, people used the oil from the blubber of whales for all sorts of items, including oil burned in lamps and ingredients for manufacturing lipstick. They also used whale meat to eat or make pet food, sinews for tennis racket strings, and even used baleen as supports in ladies underwear. A waxy substance called ambergris, which is from a sperm whale’s digestive system, was used in making perfume.  Ambergris was very valuable and a large lump found by a beach goer was worth a fortune.

Since 1986, there has been a ban or moratorium on hunting the large whales for commercial uses. However, some countries still kill whales for scientific purposes, and others have illegally resumed commercial whaling. This is controversial because the products from these whales are still used commercially.  Many scientists question whether the whales really need to be killed to learn the sorts of things being studied.  Each year from September to May over 20,000 dolphins are slaughtered in Japan. Fishermen round them up by the hundreds using sound barriers to disorient and herd the frantic pods out of their normal migrations into hidden lagoons like the one featured in The Cove.      

Bottle-nose dolphins especially ones that look like Flipper, are pre-selected by trainers and sold off for upwards of $200,000 to marine mammal parks around the world, where they will remain in captivity performing as circus acts. After the trainers and spectators have left, the rest of the dolphins are inhumanely killed in what can only be described as a massacre. 

The butchered dolphins are later used for food, but the Japanese government has intentionally sheltered people from the dangers of eating them. Consumers of dolphin meat run the risk of mercury poisoning due to high levels of the toxin within the animals. Adding to the danger, much of the pricier whale meat they purchase is actually mislabeled toxic dolphin meat. While the Japanese government defends dolphin hunting as part of their cultural heritage, this tradition has serious health effects on its own people. 

The more lucrative captive dolphin industry is the driving economic force behind the dolphin slaughter in Taiji.
In the U.S. alone, dolphinariums represent an $8.4 billion industry, while a dead dolphin fetches a mere $600. International law provides no protections against the killing of dolphins, and other slaughters occur in places outside of Japan.

Dolphin Love By Green 400 Magazine

Small cetaceans, namely dolphins are not protected by the International Whaling Commission (IWC). In fact, the IWC affords no protections for 71 (out of 80, known) cetacean species, including all dolphins and porpoises, which is why Japan can legally kill them by the tens of thousands.

Green 400 Magazine will keep petitions running so that our friendly sea family will remain safe from poachers way.  Please go to our Facebook page and hit our like button to support our cause.              

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Green-400-Magazine/428418220549895

The Japanese people have been intentionally sheltered from the slaughter, and the large majority are still unaware that much of the meat they purchase is actually mislabeled dolphin meat.

Many people are concerned about the fate of the small whales (the dolphins and porpoises). Thousands die every year from getting caught in fishing nets and plastic trash. Toxins and pollution in the ocean are affecting the health of these animals and likely their ability to fight off diseases. Around the world, there has been an increase in reported strandings of marine mammals.  Strandings occur when marine mammals or sea turtles swim or float into shore and become “beached” or stuck in shallow water.  Other species are suffering due to loss of their habitat. Sometimes even whale watching can interfere with and harass whales, if the boats venture too close to the whales or separate mothers from calves. Small whales are sometimes captured for display in aquariums and even hotels, and many people question the quality of life and health for these animals.

Killer Whales By Green 400 Magazine

In the recent past, popular movements helped to save the whales from hunting. Unfortunately, the whales are not completely safe. We need to understand and solve some of the problems currently threatening whales like climate change, boat strikes, entanglement in nets, and noise pollution. You can help by learning about the issues, letting others know what you have learned, and writing to lawmakers. Also, if you ever have the chance, try to see live whales in the wild. You will never forget it!

 


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FLOWERS THAT ATTRACT HUMMINGBIRDS

Flying Hummingbirds Dancing with Flowers

Flying Hummingbirds Dancing with Flowers

Aster     Perennial      12′-48′    Blue, Pink, Violet, White      Sun      Late Summer, Early Fall

Pink Aster

Pink Aster 

Begonia        Annual    6′-12      Pink, Red, White    Sun to Heavy Shade   Late Spring, Early Fall, Drought Resistant

Pink Begonia

Pink Begonia

Geranium       Annual    12′-24′      Pink, Red, Salmon, White  Sun   Late Spring, Early Fall

Salmon Geranium

Salmon Geranium

Gladiolas     Perennials    36′-48′       White, Pink,Yellow, Orange, Red   Sun    Summer, Hardy

Multi-Colored Gladiolus

Multi-Colored Gladiolus

Hollyhock       Perennials    24′-60′    Apricot, Pink, Purple, White, Yellow     Sun    Spring to Fall, Well Drained

Hollyhock Variety

Hollyhock Variety 

Hosta’s      Perennials     18′-24′            Lilac, White      Partial Shade       Flowers in Summer; Rich, Well Drained, Soil High in Organic Matter

Flowering Hosta's

Flowering Hosta’s

Inpatients   Annuals   8′-24′   Orange, Pink, Purple, Red, White  Partial Shade to Shade   Late Spring to Fall; Low Drought Tolerance

Variety Colored Impatients

Variety Colored Inpatients

Poppy    Annual   12′-15′ Yellow and Orange      Sunny to Partial Shade  Flowers Early Summer to Fall

Orange Poppy

Orange Poppy

Sage Autumn   Annual       24 to 30″     Red, Purple, Pink, White      Sun      Flowers Summer to Fall

Purple Sage Autumn

Purple Sage Autumn

Tiger Lily     Perennials     3 to 5′     Orange Sun to Partial Shade Flowers in Summer

Tiger Lily

Tiger Lily

Zinnia        Annual        6 to 36″    Orange, Pink, Red, White, Yellow   Sun Late Spring to Early Fall; High Drought Tolerance

Zinnia

Zinnia

Happy Planting…


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HELP….I CANNOT SLEEP!

ALTERNATIVE MEDICINES AND ALL NATURAL SLEEP AIDS FOR A RESTFUL NIGHTS SLEEP!

Insomnia HELP!

Insomnia HELP!

Sometimes at night we just cannot sleep…we toss and turn, and we are up and down,  from one side to another. Sometimes it is stress related, sometimes our mind just cannot shut down to rest.
Sometimes it is just the foods we have eaten during the day, that may not have agreed with our systems. In maturing women it could be menopause. Menopause is a stage in a woman’s life when her ovaries stop producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone and she stops menstruating. It is a normal part of aging and marks the end of a woman’s reproductive years. Menopause typically occurs in a woman’s late 40’s to early 50’s. It can also lead to major sleep problems.

From Google Scholar:   The Impact of Somatic Health Problems on Insomnia in Middle Age

Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the impact on insomnia symptoms of somatic diseases, psychological factors, living habits and life events during the previous year.

Background:  Although health problems are a significant cause of insomnia, psychosocial factors are considered to be even most important. The relative impact of these and other factors on insomnia calls for further evaluation.The  most relevant phychosocial factor is work-related stress. this has the potential to negatively affect an individual’s psychological and physical health. Therefore, it is recognized world-wide as a major challenge to workers’ health especially in males. Males also start to loose testosterone as they start heading towards middle age which is said to begin at 40, which begins the male menopause stages of a males life.
Methods: A questionnaire study in a randomly selected middle-aged population in Finland.

Results: In the conducted study, 9.8% of men and 17.0% of women reported the occurrence of insomnia at least once a week during the previous 3 months. Insomniacs perceived their health as ‘poor’ or ‘rather poor’ more often than others and depression, allergic rhinitis, asthma, hypertension and heart symptoms such as arrhythmias were more common among them. Insomnia was not a side-effect of the treatment of these diseases; lack of medical treatment was associated with a higher incidence of insomnia. Work-related factors such as ‘moving to a poorer job or to poorer working conditions’ during the past year increased the possibility of insomnia, while moving house seemed to have a positive effect. When comparing these associations in logistic regression models, nervousness and tension were, however, the factors most significantly associated with insomnia.

Conclusions: Psychosocial factors appeared to be more significantly associated with prolonged insomnia than somatic health problems.

Here are some important remedies that can help calm down the mind, body and soul and help relax.

1) Melatonin

Melatonin

Melatonin

Melatonin is a popular remedy to help people fall asleep when the sleep/wake cycle has been disturbed, such as in shift workers or people who with jet lag. Melatonin is a hormone found naturally in the body. The pineal gland in the brain makes serotonin which is then converted into melatonin at night when exposure to light decreases.

Melatonin also decreases in the brain with age, and has been found to be a miracle worker when sleep is much needed.

Melatonin is typically taken about 30 minutes before the desired bedtime. Some experts caution that melatonin should not be used by people with depression, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases, and other serious illness. Pregnant and nursing women should not use melatonin.

The University of Alberta study examined 17 studies with 651 people and found no significant side effects when used for three months or less.

2) Relaxation Techniques

Relaxation techniques are one of the most effective ways to increase sleep time, fall  asleep faster, and feel more rested in the morning. They require a minimum of 20 minutes before going to bed. There are many different techniques:

Visualization – involves imagining a relaxing scene. You can try it in bed before falling asleep. Involve all your senses. If you’re imagining yourself on a tropical island, think of the way the warm breeze feels against your skin. Imagine the sweet scent of the flowers, look at the water and listen the waves–you get the picture. The more vivid the visualization and the more senses you involve, the more effective it will be.
Relaxation Response – A mind/body technique based on the principles of Transcendental Meditation. Learn how to elicit the relaxation response.
Mindfulness – A type of meditation that essentially involves focusing on your mind on the present. Learn mindfulness.
Yoga – combines deep breathing, meditation, and stretching. A Harvard study found that daily yoga for eight weeks improved total sleep time, the time to fall asleep.

3) Diet

Cut out caffeine
Caffeine can have a pronounced effect on sleep, causing insomnia and restlessness. In addition to coffee, tea, and soft drinks, look for hidden sources of caffeine such as chocolate, cough and cold medicine, and other over-the-counter medicine.
Avoid sweets
Although sugar can give a burst of energy, it’s short-lived and can cause uneven blood sugar levels. This can disrupt sleep in the middle of the night as blood sugar levels fall.
Eat foods that help you sleep
Tryptophan is an amino acid that is a precursor to serotonin, which is then converted to melatonin. Carbohydrate snacks such whole grain crackers before bedtime may help to promote sleep. Just be sure to stay away from sweets.
Eat magnesium-rich foods
Magnesium is a natural sedative. Deficiency of magnesium can result in difficulty sleeping, constipation, muscle tremors or cramps, anxiety, irritability, and pain. It has also been use for people with restless leg syndrome.
Foods rich in magnesium are legumes and seeds, dark leafy green vegetables, wheat bran, almonds, cashews, blackstrap molasses, brewer’s yeast, and whole grains.
Other foods include:
A. Fish
Most fish—and especially salmon, halibut and tuna—boast vitamin B6, which is needed to make melatonin (a sleep-inducing hormone triggered by darkness), according to an article published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Fish By Green 400 Magazine

B. Jasmine Rice
When healthy sleepers ate carbohydrate-rich suppers of veggies and tomato sauce over rice, they fell asleep significantly faster at bedtime if the meal included high-glycemic-index (GI) jasmine rice rather than lower-GI long-grain rice, in a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. While the authors aren’t sure how it happened, they speculated that the greater amounts of insulin triggered by the high-GI meals increased the ratio of sleep-inducing tryptophan relative to other amino acids in the blood, allowing proportionately more to get into the brain.

Jasmine Rice By Green 400 Magazine

C. Tart Cherry Juice

In a recent study, melatonin-rich tart cherry juice was shown to aid sleep. When adults with chronic insomnia drank a cup of tart cherry juice twice a day they experienced some relief in the severity of their insomnia.Remember you can turn your tart cherry juice into a smoothie…yum.

Tart Cherry By Green 400 Magazine
D. Yogurt
Dairy products like yogurt and milk boast healthy doses of calcium—and there’s research that suggests being calcium-deficient may make it difficult to fall asleep.

Tart Cherry Yogurt

Tart Cherry Yogurt

E. Kale
Dairy products are well-known calcium-rich foods. But green leafy vegetables, such as including kale and collards, also boast healthy doses of calcium. And research suggests that being calcium deficient may make it difficult to fall asleep.

Kale Cranberry Salad

Kale Cranberry Salad

F. Bananas
Bananas, well-known for being rich in potassium, are also a good source of Vitamin B6, which is needed to make melatonin (a sleep-inducing hormone triggered by darkness), according to an article published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Banana
Banana

G. Chickpeas
Chickpeas boast vitamin B6, which is needed to make melatonin (a sleep-inducing hormone triggered by darkness), according to an article published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
Turkey has been accused of causing drowsiness: Tryptophan an ingredient in turkey, has a precursor to melatonin, a sleep-associated hormone manufactured in the brain’s pineal gland. “Melatonin secretion is increased during sleep,” and some studies have suggested that melatonin helps people fall asleep as well as adjust their body clocks to new time zones, says psychiatrist Jerry Siegel of the Center for Sleep Research at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Indian Curried Chick Peas

Indian Curried Chick Peas

4) Aromatherapy

The scent of English lavender has long been used as a folk remedy to help people fall asleep. Research is starting to confirm lavender’s sedative qualities. It’s been found to lengthen total sleep time, increase deep sleep, and make people feel refreshed. It appears to work better for women, possibly because women tend to have a more acute sense of smell.

The good thing about lavender is that it begins to work quickly. Try putting a lavender sachet under your pillow or place one to two drops of lavender essential oil in a handkerchief. Or add several drops of lavender oil to a bath — the drop in body temperature after a warm bath also helps with sleep. Other aromatherapy oils believed to help with sleep are chamomile and ylang ylang.

5) Light

If you have trouble falling asleep at night, you may need more light in the morning. Light exposure plays a key role in telling the body when to go to sleep and when to wake up. Try taking a walk first thing in the morning. Just be sure to wear sunscreen to protect your skin from ultraviolet rays.

On the other hand, if you find you’re waking up too early in the morning, you may need more light in the afternoon. Try taking a walk in the late afternoon.

6) Music

Gentle, slow music is another remedy that can help to improve sleep without medication. Music has been found to improve sleep quality, decrease nightly wakenings, lengthen sleep time, and increase satisfaction with sleep.

 

 

7) Acupuncture

Acupuncture may help with insomnia. A University of Pittsburgh analysis concluded that acupuncture may be an effective treatment for insomnia. A preliminary study found that five weeks of acupuncture increase melatonin secretion in the evening and improved total sleep time.

8) Traditional Chinese Medicine

In traditional Chinese medicine, insomnia often stems from kidney energy weakness. This syndrome is not necessarily related to kidney disease in Western medicine. A few signs of kidney energy weakness are low back ache, tiredness and fatigue, and a burst of energy at about 11 pm in the evening. Women in menopause often experience this type of insomnia. People who are taking anti-estrogenic drugs such as tamoxifen also experience this type of insomnia, however, they should not take herbal combinations such as the herbal formula liu wei di huang that may increase estrogen levels.

9) Ayurvedic Medicine

In Ayurvedic medicine, insomnia is often associated with a vata imbalance. Vata regulates breathing and circulation. People with a vata imbalance often notice irritability, anxiety, and fear with insomnia. One Ayurvedic treatment is the application of oil on the head and feet. For the pitta type, room temperature coconut oil is used, for the vata type, warm sesame oil is applied, and for the kapha type, warm mustard oil is often applied.

10) Exercise

Lack of exercise can contribute to poor sleep. Muscle tension and stress build in the body. Exercise can promote deep sleep that night. However, intense exercise too close to bed can increase adrenaline levels, leading to insomnia.

11) Natural Awesome Remedies

For hot flashes, a thin, flat foam pillow insert, called a Chillow, can help to cool the head throughout the night.

Chamomile is a wonderful tea that helps relax the body and then it’s magic makes you sleepy , hops, passionflower, lemon balm, and ashwagandha  are often used for insomnia.                                                                                                                  Most people may find benefit from simply having a cup of chamomile tea one to two hours before going to bed. Chamomile can reduce anxiety, calm the digestive system, and relieve muscle tension.

Organic Chamomile Flowers for Tea

Organic Chamomile Flowers for Tea

12) Feng Shui

Feng shui, which originates in the Chinese philosophy of Taoism, instructs on how to arrange rooms, furniture, offices, houses, and other arrangements to maximize favorable energy flow throughout living spaces. Here are some recommendations that may help promote relaxing sleep:

Try not to have the bed in a corner of the room. The corners are where energy tends to be stagnant.
Avoid putting your bed next to a window. Energy can be drained this way.
The bed shouldn’t be positioned so that the soles of the feet, when lying face-up in bed, directly face the doorway.
When lying in bed, you should have full view of anyone coming in the door. If you can’t do this directly, hang a mirror to reflect the entranceway.
Try to avoid facing sharp corners from desks, bookcases, and other pieces of furniture.


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THE UGLY TRUTH ABOUT VEGETABLE OILS

The Coronary Heart Disease Epidemic: Possible Culprits

What could have contributed to the epidemic of heart attacks that began in the 1920’s and 1930’s in the U.S. and U.K., and continues today. smoking, appeared to be a major player, but even smoking is clearly trumped by yet another factor or combination of factors, judging by the unusually low incidence of heart attacks in France, Japan.One of the major changes in diet that has not mentioned  is the rise of industrial liquid vegetable oils over the course of the 20th century. In the U.S. in 1900, the primary cooking fats were lard, beef tallow and butter. The following data only include cooking fats and spreads, because the USDA does not track the fats that naturally occur in milk and meat:Animal fat is off the hook.This is the type of information that makes mainstream nutrition advice ring hollow. Let’s see what happened to industrial vegetable oils in the early 1900’s.

Now remember that all corn oil is also genetically modified and made in a lab, which is not the way humans are suppose to consume foods. Humans are suppose to eat foods that are 100% natural and naturally grown.

Scientifically made foods such as corn, soy, cottonseed and some wheat’s are extremely dangerous to your health, and yes that means corn on the cob, shoe-peg corn, pop corn, corn oils ..any kind of corn is now made into franken-corn, soy sauce…please read all your labels for safety reasons.

I do believe we’re getting warmer. Now let’s consider the composition of traditional American animal fats and industrial vegetable oils:

It’s not hard to see that the two classes of fats (animal and industrial vegetable) are quite different. Animal fats are more saturated (blue). However, the biggest difference is that industrial vegetable oils contain a massive amount of omega-6 (yellow), far more than animal fats. If you accept the concept that humans evolved eating primarily animal fats, which is well supported by the archaeological and anthropological literature, then you can begin to see the nature of the problem.

Omega-6 and omega-3 fats are polyunsaturated fatty acids that are precursors to a very important class of signaling molecules called eicosanoids, which has something to do with virtually every bodily process. Omega-6 and omega-3 fats compete with one another for the enzymes (desaturases and elongases) that convert them into eicosanoid precursors. Omega-6-derived eicosanoids and omega-3-derived eicosanoids have different functions. Therefore, the balance of omega-6 to omega-3 fats in the diet influences the function of the body on virtually every level. Omega-6 eicosanoids tend to be more inflammatory and causes inflammation in the body.

What’s better understood is the fact that our current omega-6 consumption is well outside of our ecological road map.  In other words, we evolved in an environment that did not provide large amounts of omega-6 all year round.      Industrial vegetable oils are a product of food processing techniques that have been widespread for about 100 years, not enough time for even the slightest genetic adaptation. Our current level of omega-6 intake, and our current balance between omega-6 and omega-3, are therefore unnatural and can lead to many health complications down the road.

The ideal ratio is probably very roughly 2:1 omega-6:omega-3. Leaf lard is 6.8, beef tallow is 2.4, good quality butter is 1.4, corn oil is 45, cottonseed oil is 260. It’s clear that a large qualitative change in our fat consumption occurred over the course of the 20th century.

This was a major factor in the rise of heart attacks from an obscure condition to the primary cause of death.


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Tropical Cyclone and Hurricane Names Worldwide for Summer of 2013

Tropical Cyclone Names Worldwide

Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and the North Atlantic Names

2013
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Andrea
Barry
Chantal
Dorian
Erin
Fernand
Gabrielle
Humberto
Ingrid
Jerry
Karen
Lorenzo
Melissa
Nestor
Olga
Pablo
Rebekah
Sebastien
Tanya
Van
Wendy
Arthur
Bertha
Cristobal
Dolly
Edouard
Fay
Gonzalo
Hanna
Isaias
Josephine
Kyle
Laura
Marco
Nana
Omar
Paulette
Rene
Sally
Teddy
Vicky
Wilfred
Ana
Bill
Claudette
Danny
Erika
Fred
Grace
Henri
Ida
Joaquin
Kate
Larry
Mindy
Nicholas
Odette
Peter
Rose
Sam
Teresa
Victor
Wanda
Alex
Bonnie
Colin
Danielle
Earl
Fiona
Gaston
Hermine
Ian
Julia
Karl
Lisa
Matthew
Nicole
Otto
Paula
Richard
Shary
Tobias
Virginie
Walter
Arlene
Bret
Cindy
Don
Emily
Franklin
Gert
Harvey
Irma
Jose
Katia
Lee
Maria
Nate
Ophelia
Philippe
Rina
Sean
Tammy
Vince
Whitney
Alberto
Beryl
Chris
Debby
Ernesto
Florence
Gordon
Helene
Isaac
Joyce
Kirk
Leslie
Michael
Nadine
Oscar
Patty
Rafael
Sara
Tony
Valerie
William

The six lists are used in rotation. Thus, the 2012 list will be used again in 2018.
___________________________________________________________________

Eastern North Pacific Names

2013
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Alvin
Barbara
Cosme
Dalila
Erick
Flossie
Gil
Henriette
Ivo
Juliette
Kiko
Lorena
Manuel
Narda
Octave
Priscilla
Raymond
Sonia
Tico
Velma
Wallis
Xina
York
Zelda
Amanda
Boris
Cristina
Douglas
Elida
Fausto
Genevieve
Hernan
Iselle
Julio
Karina
Lowell
Marie
Norbert
Odile
Polo
Rachel
Simon
Trudy
Vance
Winnie
Xavier
Yolanda
Zeke
Andres
Blanca
Carlos
Dolores
Enrique
Felicia
Guillermo
Hilda
Ignacio
Jimena
Kevin
Linda
Marty
Nora
Olaf
Patricia
Rick
Sandra
Terry
Vivian
Waldo
Xina
York
Zelda
Agatha
Blas
Celia
Darby
Estelle
Frank
Georgette
Howard
Isis
Javier
Kay
Lester
Madeline
Newton
Orlene
Paine
Roslyn
Seymour
Tina
Virgil
Winifred
Xavier
Yolanda
Zeke
Adrian
Beatriz
Calvin
Dora
Eugene
Fernanda
Greg
Hilary
Irwin
Jova
Kenneth
Lidia
Max
Norma
Otis
Pilar
Ramon
Selma
Todd
Veronica
Wiley
Xina
York
Zelda
Aletta
Bud
Carlotta
Daniel
Emilia
Fabio
Gilma
Hector
Ileana
John
Kristy
Lane
Miriam
Norman
Olivia
Paul
Rosa
Sergio
Tara
Vicente
Willa
Xavier
Yolanda
Zeke

These lists are also re-cycled every six years (the 2012 list will be used again in 2018).
___________________________________________________________________

Central North Pacific Names

List 1
List 2
List 3
List 4
Akoni
Ema
Hone
Iona
Keli
Lala
Moke
Nolo
Olana
Pena
Ulana
Wale
Aka
Ekeka
Hene
Iolana
Keoni
Lino
Mele
Nona
Oliwa
Pama
Upana
Wene
Alika
Ele
Huko
Iopa
Kika
Lana
Maka
Neki
Omeka
Pewa
Unala
Wali
Ana
Ela
Halola
Iune
Kilo
Loke
Malia
Niala
Oho
Pali
Ulika
Walaka

The names are used one after the other. When the bottom of one list is reached, the next name is the top of the next list.
___________________________________________________________________

Western North Pacific and the South China Sea Names (as of 2012)

Contributor
I
II
III
IV
V
Cambodia
China
DPR Korea
HK, China
Japan
Lao PDR
Macao, China
Malaysia
Micronesia
Philippines
RO Korea
Thailand
U.S.A.
Vietnam
Cambodia
China
DPR Korea
HK, China
Japan
Lao PDR
Macao, China
Malaysia
Micronesia
Philippines
RO Korea
Thailand
U.S.A.
Vietnam
Damrey
Haikui
Kirogi
Kai-Tak
Tembin
Bolaven
Sanba
Jelawat
Ewiniar
Maliksi
Gaemi
Prapiroon
Maria
Son-Tinh
Bopha
Wukong
Sonamu
Shanshan
Yagi
Leepi
Bebinca
Rumbia
Soulik
Cimaron
Jebi
Mangkhut
Utor
Trami
Kong-rey
Yutu
Toraji
Man-yi
Usagi
Pabuk
Wutip
Sepat
Fitow
Danas
Nari
Wipha
Francisco
Lekima
Krosa
Haiyan
Podul
Lingling
Kajiki
Faxai
Peipah
Tapah
Mitag
Hagibis
Neoguri
Rammasun
Matmo
Halong
Nakri
Fengshen
Kalmaegi
Fung-wong
Kanmuri
Phanfone
Vongfong
Nuri
Sinlaku
Hagupit
Jangmi
Mekkhala
Higos
Bavi
Maysak
Haishen
Noul
Dolphin
Kujira
Chan-hom
Linfa
Nangka
Soudelor
Molave
Goni
Atsani
Etau
Vamco
Krovanh
Dujuan
Mujigae
Choi-wan
Koppu
Champi
In-fa
Melor
Nepartak
Lupit
Mirinae
Nida
Omais
Conson
Chanthu
Dianmu
Mindulle
Lionrock
Kompasu
Namtheun
Malou
Meranti
Rai
Malakas
Megi
Chaba
Aere
Songda
Sarika
Haima
Meari
Ma-on
Tokage
Nock-ten
Muifa
Merbok
Nanmadol
Talas
Noru
Kulap
Roke
Sonca
Nesat
Haitang
Nalgae
Banyan
Washi
Pakhar
Sanvu
Mawar
Guchol
Talim
Doksuri
Khanun
Vicente
Saola

RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center will assign a tropical cyclone a name from the list followed by a 4-digit identification number (in brackets). Names on the list will only be given to tropical cyclones of tropical storm strength or above.These names are used sequentially. That is, if the last storm of the year is Cimaron, the first storm of the next year is Jebi.
___________________________________________________________________

Australian TCWC’s Area of Responsibility (as of 2010)

A
B
C
D
E
F
G

H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
PQ
R
S

T
UV

WXYZ

Anika
Billy
Charlotte
Dominic
Ellie
Freddy
Gabrielle
Herman
Ilsa
Jasper
Kirrily
Lincoln
Megan
Neville
Olga
Paul
Robyn
Sean
Tasha
Vince
Zelia
Anthony
Bianca
Carlos
Dianne
Errol
Fina
Grant
Heidi
Iggy
Jasmine
Koji
Lua
Mitchell
Narelle
Oswald
Peta
Rusty
Sandra
Tim
Victoria
Zane
Alessia
Bruce
Catherine Dylan
Edna
Fletcher
Gillian
Hadi
Ita
Jack
Kate
Lam
Marcia
Nathan
Olwyn
Quang
Raquel
Stan
Tatjana
Uriah
Yvette
Alfred
Blanche
Caleb
Debbie
Ernie
Frances
Greg
Hilda
Ira
Joyce
Kelvin
Linda
Marcus
Nora
Owen
Penny
Riley
Savannah
Trevor
Veronica
Wallace
Ann
Blake
Claudia
Damien
Esther
Ferdinand
Gretel
Harold
Imogen
Joshua
Kimi
Lucas
Marian
Noah
Odette
Paddy
Ruby
Seth
Tiffany
Verdun

The name of a new tropical cyclone is usually selected from this list of names. If a named cyclone moves into the Australian region from another country’s zone of responsibility, the name assigned by that other country will be retained. The names are normally chosen in sequence, when the list is exhausted, we return to the start of the list.

___________________________________________________________________

RSMC Nadi’s Area of Responsibility (as of 2010)

List A
List B
List C
List D
List E
(Standby)
Ana
Bina
Cody
Dovi
Eva
Fili
Gina
Hagar
Irene
Judy
Kerry
Lola
Mal
Nat
Olo
Pita
Rae
Sheila
Tam
Urmil
Vaianu
Wati
Xavier
Yani
Zita
Arthur
Becky
Chip
Denia
Elisa
Fotu
Glen
Hettie
Innis
Joni
Ken
Lin
Mick
Nisha
Oli
Pat
Rene
Sarah
TomasVania
Wilma
Yasi
Zaka
Atu
Bune
Cyril
Daphne
Evan
Freda
Garry
Heley
Ian
June
Kofi
Lusi
Mike
Nute
Odile
Pam
Reuben
Solo
Tuni
Ula
Victor
Winston
Yalo
Zena
Amos
Bart
Colin
Donna
Ella
Frank
Gita
Hali
Iris
Jo
Kala
Leo
Mona
Neil
Oma
Pami
Rita
Sarai
TinoVicky
Wiki
Yolande
Zazu
Alvin
Bela
Cook
Dean
Eden
Florin
Garth
Hart
Isa
Julie
Kelvin
Louise
Moses
Niko
Opeti
Pearl
Rex
Suki
TroyVanessa
Wano
Yvonne
Zidane

Lists A, B, C, and D are used sequentially one after the other. The first name in any given year is the one immediately following the last name from the previous year. List E is a list of replacement names if they become necessary. Wellington TCWC will name the cyclone, in consultation with RSMC Nadi, by using the next name from RSMC Nadi’s list, if a tropical cyclone in the Wellington TCWC’s area of responsibility, Wellington.
____________________________________________________________________

Port Moresby TCWC’s Area of Responsibility (as of 2010)

List A

List B
(Standby)

Alu
Buri
Dodo
Emau
Fere
Hibu
Ila
Kama
Lobu
Maila
Nou
Obaha
Paia
Ranu
Sabi
Tau
Ume
Vali
Wau
Auram

Lists A and B are used sequentially one after the other. The first name in any given year is the one immediately following the last name from the previous year.
___________________________________________________________________

Jakarta TCWc’s Area of Responsibility

List A

List B
(Standby)

Anggrek
Bakung
Cempaka
Dahlia
Flamboyan
Kenanga
Lili
Mawar
Seroja
Teratai

Anggur
Belimbing
Duku
Jambu
Lengkeng
Mangga
Nangka
Pisang
Rambuta
Sawo

The name of a new tropical cyclone is determined by sequential cycling through List A.  Standby List B is used to replace retired names in List A and any replacement will be added to the bottom of List A to maintain the alphabetical order.
___________________________________________________________________

Northern Indian Ocean Names (as of 2010)

Contributors
List 1
List 2
List 3
List 4
Bangladesh
India
Maldives
Mayanmar
Oman
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Onil
Agni
Hibaru
Pyarr
Baaz
Fanoos
Mala
Mukda
Ogni
Akash
Gonu
Yemyin
Sidr
Nargis
Rashmi
Khai Muk
Nisha
Bijli
Aila
Phyan
Ward
Laila
Bandu
Phet
Giri
Jal
Keila
Thane
Murjan
Nilam
Mahasen
Phailin
Contributors
List 5
List 6
List 7
List 8
Bangladesh
India
Maldives
Mayanmar
Oman
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Helen
Lehar
Madi
Nanauk
Hudhud
Nilofar
Priya
Komen
Chapala
Megh
Roanu
Kyant
Nada
Vardah
Asiri
Mora
Ockhi
Sagar
Mekunu
Daye
Luban
Titli
Gigum
Phethai
Fani
Vayu
Hikaa
Kyarr
Maha
Bulbul
Soba
Amphan

The RSMC tropical cyclones New Delhi will give a tropical cyclone an identification name from the above name list. The identification system covers both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.
___________________________________________________________________

Southwest Indian Ocean Names (as of 2010)

 CYCLONE SEASON2010/2011 

Names

Provided by

ABELE
BINGIZA
CHERONO

DALILOU
ELVIRE
FRANCIS
GILADI
HAINGO
IGOR
JANI
KHABONINA
LUMBO
MAINA
NALEDI
ONANI
PAULETTE
QILOANE
RAFAEL
STELLA
TARI
UNJATY
VITA
WILLY
XIMENE
YASMINE
ZAMA
Lesotho
Malawi
Kenya
Comoros
Mauritius
Seychelles
Tanzania
Madagascar
France
Botswana
Swaziland
Mozambique
Zimbabwe
South Africa
Malawi
Seychelles
Lesotho
France
South Africa
Comoros
Madagascar
Tanzania
Mauritius
Mozambique
Kenya
Swaziland

 CYCLONE SEASON2011/2012

Names

Provided by

ALENGA
BENILDE
CHANDA
D
ANDO
ETHEL
F
UNSO
GIOVANNA
HILWA
I
RINA
J
ONI
KUENA
LESEGO
MICHEL
NOYANA
 
O
LIVIER
POKERA
QUINCY
 
REBAONE

SALAMA
TRISTAN
 
URSULA
VIOLET
 
WILSON
 
XAVIER
 
YEKELA
 
ZA
INA
Kenya
Mozambique
Mauritius
Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Malawi
Seychelles
Comores
Madagascar
Botswana
Lesotho
South Africa
France
Swaziland
Mauritius
Malawi
Seychelles
Botswana
Comores
France
Kenya
South Africa
Mozambique
Madagascar
Swaziland
Tanzania

 CYCLONE SEASON2012/2013 

Names

Provided by

ANAIS
BOLDWIN
CLAUDIA
DUMILE
E
MANG
F
ELLENG
G
INO
HA
RUNA
I
MELDA
J
AMALA 
K
ACHAY 
LU
CIANO
MA
RIAM 
N
JAZI 
ON
IAS 
P
ELAGIE 
Q
UILIRO
R
ICHARD
SOLANI
TAMIM
URILIA
 
V
UYANE
WAGNER
 
X
USA 
YA
RONA 
ZA
CARIAS
France
South Africa
Madagascar
Swaziland
Botswana
Lesotho
Mauritius
Zimbabwe
Seychelles
Comores
Kenya
Mozambique
Tanzania
Malawi
Zimbabwe
Madagascar
Comores
Seychelles
Swaziland
Tanzania
South Africa
Lesotho
Kenya
Malawi
Botswana
Mozambique

These lists are used sequentially, and they are not rotated every few years as are the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific lists.
___________________________________________________________________


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A Spring Mystery ……Solved!

A bit of gardening by David Oakes

DAVID OAKES -IMAGES.

Aquilegia, perhaps better known as Columbine was a wildflower that man has tamed to grace his garden.  We have various colours in our patch, Pink, Yellow and Cream.  But it is the Blue (with a Purple tinge) that is always the first to flower in our garden………

V1

The Blue, apart from being the first to flower, is also the variety that ‘self seeds’ and appears in the most unlikely of locations in the garden.  The Blue is also the variety that graces meadow and hedgerows in the wild.  So I guess that is the answer to our mystery…the wild variety is much tougher and needs to survive under its own steam, so no surprise that it is the first colour to flower and appears to be the only colour of Columbine to self seed. Don’t misunderstand, I am not complaining, as whatever their colour, I welcome their presence in the…

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New Exciting Solar Plane Completes Second Cross-Country Flight in Texas

May 24, 2013 is a very exciting time and a staple for new inventors and engineers who have spent many years making solar transportation vehicles such as; long distance boats, airplanes and other types of transportation vehicles that can go great distances.

The first thoughts of solar transportation surprisingly enough dates all the way back to 1838 by Edmund Becquerel who experimented, observed and published findings about the nature of materials to turn light into energy, but were not pursued.

A solar airplane that inventors hoped to eventually pilot around the globe landed safely on Thursday in Texas, completing the second and longest  attempt to fly across the United States powered only by the sun.

The superbly designed experimental aircraft, named “Solar Impulse”, touched down at Dallas/Forth Worth International Airport shortly after 1 a.m. Central Standard Time, logged 18 hours and 21 minutes in the air to cover 823 nautical miles from Phoenix, Arizona.

Solar Impulse,  The World First Solar Airplane

Solar Impulse,
The World First Solar Airplane

The flight set a new world distance record in solar aviation.

Solar Impulse, which flies at 43 miles per hour (69 km per hour), began its cross-country sojourn on May 3 with an 18-hour-plus flight from northern California to Phoenix.

“Solar Impulse” made additional stops in St. Louis and Washington, D.C., having layovers at each destination waiting for favorable weather, the flight team plans to continue the plane’s voyage at New York’s John F. Kennedy International Airport in early July.

Swiss pilots Bertrand Piccard and Andre Borschberg, the co-founders of the project, are taking turns flying the plane, which has a single-seat cockpit.

Piccard piloted the first leg from California to Arizona, and Borschberg flew the second stretch to Texas.

Solar Impulse  Details By Green 400 Magazine

Solar Impulse Details By Green 400 Magazine

“This travel length was particularly challenging because of strong winds when landing, said pilot” Borschberg in a statement released after the flight. Andre has already held the record for the longest-duration flight in a solar-powered plane – 26 hours.

The Solar Impulse project began in 2003 with a 10-year budget of 90 million euros ($112 million) which involved engineers from Swiss escalator maker Schindler and research aid from Belgian chemicals group Solvay.

Solvay was one of the first investors that wanted to test new materials and technologies while also gaining brand recognition.
Project organizers say that the journey was also intended to increase worldwide support and recognition for the adoption of clean-energy technologies.

The wingspan of this miraculous jumbo jet, is surprisingly the same weight as a small car.
“The Solar Impulse” is just a test model for a more advanced aircraft the team plans to build to circumnavigate the globe in 2015. The plane made its first intercontinental flight, from Spain to Morocco, last June.

Solar Impulse Details By Green 400 Magazine

The aircraft runs on the same power as a motor scooter, propelled by energy collected from 12,000 solar cells built into the wings that simultaneously recharge batteries with a storage capacity equivalent to an electric car.

In that way, the Solar Impulse can fly after dark on solar energy generated during daylight hours. It is the first solar-powered aircraft capable of operating day and night without fuel to attempt a U.S. coast-to-coast flight.

Currently Solar Impulse is unlikely to set any speed record, nor is it unlikely to set any altitude record, but Solar Impulse can gradually climb to altitudes of 28,000 feet.

The current solar model was designed for flights of up to 24 hours, but the next model is in the works. and will have to allow for up to five days and five nights of flying by one pilot – a feat never yet accomplished.

Deep meditation and hypnosis therapies are apart of the pilots’ training to prepare them to fly for extremely long hours without sleep. There is no autopilot mechanism as of yet.

The plane’s four large batteries, attached to the bottom of the wings along with the aircraft’s four propellers, account for a quarter of its overall. The lightweight carbon fiber design and wingspan allow the plane to conserve energy, but also make it vulnerable to being tipped over. The next model should eliminate some of these inconveniences and hazardous interludes as the awkwardness of the balancing of the fiber design.

A ground team of weather specialists, air traffic controllers and engineers track the plane’s speed and battery levels and help the pilot steer clear of turbulence. Solar Impulse cannot fly in strong wind, fog, rain or clouds. Its machinery is not  designed to withstand moisture, but with any new invention, much tweaking will be need in order to find the missing links, to make a better, stronger and more durable plane that can withstand the elements of weather.