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WHAT IS FRACKING? AND WHY ENDANGER THE UNITED KINGDOM?

U.K. Proposes to Frack One-Half of Great Britain

UK No Fracking Allowed

UK No Fracking Allowed
Demonstrators Hold-Placards-Protest by Green 400 Magazine

What is hydraulic fracturing?

Fracking (aka, hydraulic fracturing or industrial gas drilling) is a dangerous way of getting oil and gas and a shortsighted energy strategy. It’s poisoning our air and water and on its way to jeopardizing the health of millions of Americans and people all across the globe.

Since the United States started fracking, here is their governments definition of this dangerous practice. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hydraulic fracturing is a process to stimulate a natural gas, oil, or geothermal energy well to maximize the extraction. The technique of hydraulic fracturing is used to increase the rate at which fluids, such as petroleum, water, or natural gas can be recovered from subterranean natural reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically porous sand-stones, lime-stones or dolomite rocks, but also include “unconventional reservoirs” such as shale rock or coal beds. Hydraulic fracturing enables the production of natural gas and oil from rock formations deep below the earth’s surface (generally 5,000–20,000 feet (1,500–6,100 m), which is typically greatly below groundwater reservoirs of basins if present.

UNITED KINGDOM~STAND UP FOR YOUR RIGHTS!
U.K. Proposes to Frack One-Half of Great Britain

As the rapid expansion of fracking in the U.S. has led to a growing chorus of concerned voices about the potential health and environmental repercussions of this activity, news has surfaced that the European Union (EU) is taking significant steps toward preventing fracking in Europe.

However, in a conversation with Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk, British Prime Minister David Cameron confirmed that he will work to ensure that fracking comes to Europe.

This acknowledgement comes at a time when the EU is debating strengthening its carbon-trading system. The EU has recently moved to delay the selling of 900 million carbon allowances, which is likely to raise the prices of carbon allowances by 10 to 15 percent.

The withholding of carbon allowances—which is a publicly-tradable certificate that “offsets” or pays for the carbon dioxide a company releases into the atmosphere, with each certificate representing a metric ton of the gas—is thought to raise the prices on energy production, as companies must spend more to control their emissions.

Cameron’s comments come on the heels of the EU deciding it won’t regulate fracking on the European continent. The European Commission, based in Brussels, has previously moved to introduce new regulations that would control the environmental impact the drilling may have. Buoyed by France, which has banned fracking within its borders since 2011, concerns of contamination to the continent’s shared watersheds and the possibility of induced earthquakes have forced commissioners to take seriously this relatively new and dangerous technology.

However,lobbying from the UK and various fracking companies have convinced EU President Jose Manuel Barroso that a “hands-off” approach is best.

“I was just very worried that while we are already behind on fracking and unconventional gas compared to America, we would fall even further behind if we had more legal processes to go through,” Cameron said after the EU’s reconsideration. “So it’s a good step forward. It could mean 70,000 jobs or more for people in the UK as well as helping to keep the bills of individuals down, but also helping to make us more competitive as a location for investment.

“We’ve got to follow through on that and now make sure that this industry can really go ahead,” Cameron said.

Chasing Shale Gas in Great Britain

Currently, shale gas extraction is regulated under 17 EU regulations, with the member states having autonomy over how to enforce the legislation. In the UK, rising energy costs have proven to be a cantankerous issue ahead of the 2015 general elections. While the rising price of energy has been a matter of concern—particularly, in light of an abnormally cold winter and tightened carbon trading—anti-fracking protests and outcries from a number of communities have led a number of Tory MPs to fear that their seats may be in danger should fracking be approved in the country.

According to UK government-commissioned report, the government is planning to permit as many as 2,800 wells to be drilled. Every English county—with the exception of Cornwall—will receive a well, with the local communities being promised at least $164,730 in benefits per well. Government estimates project that at peak fracking will satisfy one-fifth of the UK’s gas demand and create as many as 32,000 jobs, but at what cost to the British people?

Among the areas that have been offered to fracking companies as potential well sites are several national parks, a large number of “areas of outstanding natural beauty,” and several sites deemed of “international importance” for conservationists.

Below, click on the words “The Big Picture” to take you to a map of what is to become of England’s pristine countryside.

THE BIG PICTURE

So far, 176 “license” areas have been allocated to the drilling companies, mostly around Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire and Sussex. The proposed sites stretch from the south of Scotland to the Southern English coast and represent approximately two-thirds of England or one-half of Great Britain.

The oil and gas companies will be allowed to apply in a licensing round to commence in the summer. The companies will be required to secure a series of planning and environmental permits, however, prior to drilling.

“We have seen the enormous impact that shale gas extraction in the States has had on its economy, both on household bills and industrial prices. It has had a strong impact there and it has the potential to have an impact here,” said Michael Fallon, the U.K. energy minister. “It will reduce our dependence on liquid natural gas. We import over half our gas at the moment and we face the prospect of having to import 70 percent of our gas by 2030 if we haven’t found any shale by then.”

“If we do find shale that will obviously reduce our dependence on those imports and reduce our dependence on wholesale gas prices,” Fallon continued. “That in turn will be good for the economy.”
According to a government-commissioned report, the government is planning to permit as many as 2,800 wells to be drilled. Cuadrilla fracking site in the Bowland Basin near Blackpool, England.
Differing Views:

Throughout the continent, there seems to be few shared opinions on fracking. Germany, under Angela Merkel, has increased drilling and extraction to such a high degree that fracking is logistically impossible in the country.

German People Against Fracking Green 400 Magazine

German People Against Fracking
Green 400 Magazine

The German coalition agreement read:

According to available studies on its environmental relevance, the fracking technology in unconventional natural gas production—particularly in shale gas production—is a technology with enormous potential risks. The effects on humans, nature and the environment are scientifically not yet sufficiently clarified. Drinking water and health have absolute priority for us.

We reject the use of environmentally toxic substances in the application of fracking technology for exploration and extraction of unconventional natural gas deposits. A request for approval can only be decided upon when the necessary data basis for evaluation exists and is clarified beyond doubt that any adverse change in water quality can be ruled out.

Poland, on the other hand, is aggressively tapping its reserves—thought to be the largest on the continent. This presents a host of problems: Poland is one of Europe’s most-densely populated nations with a large agricultural base. The nation’s water supply was already under pressure before fracking. Questions about the drilling’s massive water use have raised concerns that Poland will be pulled into drought conditions or that leaked fracking fluids can poison a large population quickly.

Polish Flag Aggressive Green 400 Magazine

Polish Flag Aggressive
Green 400 Magazine

However, the prospect of Polish gas relieving the EU’s dependency on Russian gas has convinced the Eastern European nation to push on despite the risks. Russia currently provides the EU with 25 percent of its natural gas.

California and “Safe Fracking”

As Europe embraces the American fracking model, the U.S. is starting to deal with the long-term implications of the technology. After a series of Associated Press reports highlighting Southern California offshore oil and gas companies discharging fracking chemicals into the ocean, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has introduced new rules requiring well operators to report the release of any chemicals into the waterways.

The reports found that the well discharged the chemicals without an environmental impact analysis, without public disclosure and with little or no oversight. State regulators ruled separately that California oil companies must test the groundwater and alert local landowners prior to the starting of any fracking or well stimulation activity. In addition, the companies must disclose all chemicals used during fracking and acquire permits prior to a fracking job.

For many, the notion that the oil and gas companies are hiding what they are doing begs the question of just how safe fracking truly is.

“The EPA’s rule will provide some information about the toxic fracking chemicals dumped into our ocean, but it relies on oil companies to be honest and transparent in their self-reporting,” said Miyoko Sakashita, senior attorney at the Center for Biological Diversity.

These regulations are scheduled to go into effect in 2015.
Below is a series of video’s that explains in great detail the dangers to our environment and to all who inhabit the world.

To help the people of the United Kingdom and England, please follow the link below to sign the petition to keep fracking out of the U.K.

Thank you, Green 400 Magazine

http://www.letbritaindecide.com/


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California #1 in Renewable Energies

We are in the middle of an energy revolution and it is exciting to see who reforms to the new idea’s of renewable energies such as solar…
Lancaster California has been working on becoming the #1 city in the world to go solar, while Sebastopol California is catching up at a fast pace in becoming the second fastest city to go solar.
California along with Arizona have the highest rates of sunshine in the United States, both states average about 5.5 strong hours of continuous sunlight, so it would be to the advantage of these states to cash in with solar to make their states more energy efficient and to give other states the initiative to do the same.

Sebastopol, California, making solar power manditory on all new construction...By Green 400 Magazine

The Important Question is Why Do We Need Solar?
There 5 different area’s that we will focus on:

1) Economic growth- The high usage of electricity over the past several decades has grown drastically from all of the devices we have been inventing over these time periods such as the internet, computers and computer related products that have a huge appetite when it comes to energy usages.
As the United States continues to grow in their thirst for energy, we cannot continue down this path if we want to evolve safely.
The following chart is a 40 year chart of United States energy usage.

US historical energy consumption by Green 400 Magazine

2). Population Growth- Population growth is a given throughout the United States and California.
The expected growth for California from 2000 to 2040 is 51%.
The expected growth for the United States during the same time frame is estimated to be 42%.

3). Reliance on Imports- California’s energy demand increased 6% from 2001-2005, that was California’s last energy crisis.
A Silicone Valley Manufacturing Group is fearful that California State may need more energy then it can import. This same group that its nearly 200 members lost over 100 million dollars in just one day from the June 2000 blackouts. Transmission systems inability to import enough power was the cause of the rolling blackouts that occurred that year.
The chart below show the high need of imported energy.

california-pv-installs-soaring

4). Dirty Energy- Since 2006 California only consumes 11% renewable energies that include; solar, geothermal, small hydroelectric, biomass and wind, while 57 % is from dirty energy like fossil fuels, coal, natural gas and nuclear.
Recently a law pasted stating that California had to accelerate their renewable energies through private investor owned utilities and to receive a 20% renewable portfolio by 2010.

Fossil fuels create too much greenhouse gas pollution (e.g. coal). Fossil fuels and nuclear energy have health consequences and risks both for individuals and our environment. The Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change, comprising more than 2,000 of the world’s leading climate
scientists, have found that our global climate is gradually warming. They predict that during our
children’s lifetimes global warming could raise the planet’s average temperature by as much as 11
degrees Fahrenheit. Without acting upon this information, this landscape-altering disaster promises heavy damages on our ecosystems, economies and quality of life. Energy from non-renewable sources
become even more expensive over time due to finite supply. Renewable energy technologies
tend to become more affordable as supply and economies increase.

Solar Energy is just the ticket for clean and reliable energy, it can eliminate most of the states energy problems and is more affordable then the dirty energies of the present. Solar can also help eliminate California’s carbon foot print and reduce global warming. Best of all, once a solar system is
installed, it generates energy for free, requires minimal maintenance, and can last 35 years or more.

California for years has been a trend setter, lets just hope that this trend moves fast across the United
States, so that we can reduce our carbon footprint and be leaders in renewable energies..